aṣṭāṅga (pronounced 'ash-taangah' ) ~ eight parts
Patañjali codified the teaching of yoga into an method of eight parts. He advised that through consistent practice (abhyāsha) and non-attachment (vairāgya) this method will yield success.
1 - YAMA Restraint
Yama - RestraintAhiṁsā - non-violence
Satya - truth
Asteya - non-stealing
Brahmacarya - sexual continence
Aparigraha - non-acquisitveness
2 - NIYAMA Observance
Niyama - Self observanceŚauca - cleanliness
Santoṣa - contentment
Tapas - austerity/discipline
Svādhyāya - continual learning
Īśvara praṇidhāna - surrender to the highest
3 - ĀSANA Seated Posture
Āsana - PostureII.46 Āsana is a steady comfortable posture.
II.47 By lessening the natural tendency for restlessness and by meditating on the infinite, posture is mastered.
II.48 Thereafter, one is undisturbed by dualities.
4 - PRĀṆĀYĀMA Breath regulation
Breath regulationII.49 With posture acquired, the movement of inhalation and exhalation should be controlled. This is prāṇāyāma.
II.52 As a result, the veil over the inner light is destroyed.
II.53 And the mind becomes fit for concentration.'
5 - PRATYĀHĀRA Sense withdrawl
Pratyahara - Sense withdrawalII.54 When the senses withdraw themselves from the object and imitate, as it were, the nature of the mind-stuff, this is pratyāhāra.
II.55 Then follows supreme mastery over the senses.
6 - DHĀRAṆĀ Focus
Dharana - ConcentrationIII.1 Dhāraṇā is fixing the the mind to one place, object or idea.
7 - DHYĀNA Absorption
Dhyana - MeditationIII.2 When awareness flows evenly towards the point of attention, this is known as Dhyāna.
8 - SAMĀDHI Clear Perception
Samadhi - Clear perceptionIII.3 Samādhi is that condition of illumination, where union disappears, only the meaning of the object on which the attention is fixed is present.
*Translation: Swami Satchidananda